Reading the Old Testament

PDF File: Reading the Old Testament

  1. How to Read the Old Testament: NT Guidelines
  2. The NT is really just commentary and interpretation of the OT
  3. Luke 24:45-47
  4. 1.     Lk 24:45-47,“45Then he opened their minds so they could understand the Scriptures. 46He told them, “This is what is written: The Christ will suffer and rise from the dead on the third day, 47and repentance and forgiveness of sins will be preached in his name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.”
  5. 2.     The term scriptures here are in reference to the Old Testament, or the Hebrew Bible. Jesus here is opening their minds to understand the Scriptures from a Christological perspective, seeing in it that Christ would suffer and be raised, and that repentance will be preached to all the nations. We will engage in such an opening of the scriptures in IV.
  6. Mark 7:14-23
  7. 1.     Mk 7:14-2314Again Jesus called the crowd to him and said, “Listen to me, everyone, and understand this. 15Nothing outside a man can make him ‘unclean’ by going into him. Rather, it is what comes out of a man that makes him ‘unclean.’ “17After he had left the crowd and entered the house, his disciples asked him about this parable. 18“Are you so dull?” he asked. “Don’t you see that nothing that enters a man from the outside can make him ‘unclean’? 19For it doesn’t go into his heart but into his stomach, and then out of his body.” (In saying this, Jesus declared all foods “clean.”)  20He went on: “What comes out of a man is what makes him ‘unclean.’ 21For from within, out of men’s hearts, come evil thoughts, sexual immorality, theft, murder, adultery, 22greed, malice, deceit, lewdness, envy, slander, arrogance and folly. 23All these evils come from inside and make a man ‘unclean.’ “
  8. 2.     Here Jesus is seeking to correct a polluted understanding of the Scriptures. We are not to read it and leave with a focus on works cleaning us from the outside. Rather, we must understand that the inside is to be clean. God’s Plan of Salvation is not one providing a legalistic list of things to do in which we can then become clean, but rather the unfolding climax of how God, through His grace, will bring about a cleansing that will occur from the inside out. One in which faith in God’s grace produces.
  9. Gal 3:13-18
  10. 1.     Gal 3:13-18, “13Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us, for it is written: “Cursed is everyone who is hung on a tree.”14He redeemed us in order that the blessing given to Abraham might come to the Gentiles through Christ Jesus, so that by faith we might receive the promise of the Spirit. 15Brothers, let me take an example from everyday life. Just as no one can set aside or add to a human covenant that has been duly established, so it is in this case. 16The promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed. The Scripture does not say “and to seeds,” meaning many people, but “and to your seed,”[b] meaning one person, who is Christ. 17What I mean is this: The law, introduced 430 years later, does not set aside the covenant previously established by God and thus do away with the promise. 18For if the inheritance depends on the law, then it no longer depends on a promise; but God in his grace gave it to Abraham through a promise.”
  11. 2.     Here we see where the promises made to Abraham and others find its fruition in the person and mission of Jesus. Prophecy is used as an example of recognizing the true Messiah, and the purpose of his ministry. The writer here clearly searches the scripture through a lens seeking the person and explanation of Jesus the Christ.

II.  The Problem

  1. The Fall (Gn 1-3)
  2. 1.     As the account in Gn 1-3 made clear, the entire revelation of Scripture and mission of God must start with the problem in which God’s work addresses to fix: Man has fallen away, and rebelled again, God. Thus, the Canon opens with this account, setting the tone regarding what the Messiah will come to accomplish: Reconciling God’s children back to rightful communion with him. Bringing them back to His garden.
  3. Man’s Sinfulness (Isa 64:6, Rom 3:23)
  4. 1.     Is 64:6, “All of us have become like one who is unclean, and all our righteous acts are like filthy rags.” We are all in need of cleaning. Our robes are filthy with sin. Every one of us. What we term as ‘good works’ are really ‘used menstrual rags’ (and the Hebrew implies). The verse then (1) Acknowledges we all are in need of this cleaning, and (2) Our ‘good works’ can not as much save and cleanse us as could Adam’s fig leaf clothing hide him from God.
  5. 2.     Rom 3:23, “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.” All have sinned and are in need of forgiveness. God’s plan of Salvation is thus aimed at everyone, and everyone is in need of it. This understanding of human nature and the necessity of God’s working of salvation is fundamental to understanding scripture and God’s plan. If we do not acknowledge we are ‘filthy’ and have ‘fallen short,’ then how are we to then acknowledge we are in need of a Savior?
  6. Man’s Total Depravity (Eph 2:1-3)
  7. 1.     This issue of a depraved human nature, the necessity of intervention, the climax of God’s solution, and our response are see in Ephesians 2:1-10. Eph 2:1-3 stress three essential clarifications that again underscore the problem in which scripture will address (and in which Jesus will provide as a solution).
  8. 2.     Eph 2:1, “you were dead in your transgressions and sins.” How can a someone dead to their sins expect to, by their efforts, save themselves from sin? Can a dead man even scratch his nose, let alone provide his salvation?
  9. 3.     Eph 2:2, “you followed the … ruler of the kingdom of the air.” We were followers of none other the Satan himself.
  10. 4.     Eph 2:3, “we were by nature objects of wrath.”
  11. How The Problem Arouse
  12. God’s Centrality (Gn 1)
  13. 1.     In the Beginning God created.
  14. 2.     Mentioned about 32+ times in the first chapter alone
  15. 3.     The Bible is centered on and about God and his work, not man. Gen 1-3 is not about Adam and Even, but first and foremost about God. A parallel then in God’s plan of salvation, and the role that grace plays.
  16. Creation and Man’s Image and Uniqueness (Gn 1:14)
  17. 1.     Gn 1:14, “Let there be.” Third Person Decree. Used for lights, water, material world, animals, etc. Impersonal.
  18. 2.     Gn 1:21, “According to their kinds.” Animals are made according to the images of their kinds. 7 such references (Gn 1:21, 24, & 25), for birds, sea-creatures, livestock, wildlife, etc.
  19. 3.     Gn 1:4, “God saw that it was good.” God describes the various created things and animals simply as ‘good’, using the phrase for the various days of creation, and the various animals (Gn 1:4, 10, 12, 18, 21, 25). The word ‘good’ is used 6 times.
  20. 4.     Gn 1:26, “Let Us Make.” God switches from the third person decree used in the days of creation (III. B. 1.), to a personal first person imperative in describing the creation of man. This is notable difference. ‘Let there be’ implies authority, however ‘Let Us Make’ implies affection. God delights in mankind (Pro 8:31).
  21. 5.     Gn 1:26 & 27, “according to Our likeness,” “in His own image.” The animals are all created ‘according to their kinds’ (III. B. 2.), but man is created in the very likeness and image of God! Human beings are then unique in comparison to animals. This would explain the special value of human versus animal life, as well as man’s access to reason, morality, and dignity.
  22. 6.     Gn 1:31, “God saw all that He had made, and it was very good.” Creation is simply described as ‘good’ (III. B. 3.) until God creates man. Then he describes creation as very good. Such could be attributed to the addition of humanity and its special place in creation. This then provides the seventh ‘good’ of the creation account.
  23. Man’s Purpose and His Crown (Gn 2:15)
    1. 1.     Gn 2:15, “The LORD God took the man and placed him in the garden of Eden to work (a bad) and watch (sha mar) over it.” “A bad and Sha mar” are Hebrew terms that can be translated as Worship and Obey. God’s purpose can then be seen in worshipping God, such as through obeying Him.
    2. 2.     Man is then given a special dominion
    3. Man’s Fall (Gn 3:5, 6)
    4. 1.     Gn 3:5, “when you eat it your eyes will be opened and you will be like God.” The temptation to disobey God, as given by the serpent, is for Eve to replace God’s kingly role in her life. She wishes to be her own God. To be like God. To have herself sit in the throne rightfully made for God alone. This is the root of sin: to worship the idol of self, or the idols made by human hands. Sin enters from man’s desires to replace God with themselves.
    5. 2.     Gn 3:6, “So she took some of its fruit and ate [it]; she also gave [some] to her husband, [who was] with her, and he ate it.” This temptation leads them to act upon it with disobedience. Eve basically believes she simply knows better then God, and partakes of the fruit against His commands. Adam, who was given the duty of protecting his wife from evil and temptation, seems to fear his wife more then he fears God, and follows after her example by eating as well. Thus enters disobedience, sin, the worship of self, idolatry, and the fall.
    6. Man’s Death (Gn 1:17)
    7. 1.     Gn 1:17, “you will certainly die.” The death for disobeying and rejecting God is not simply physical. It is primarily a spiritual death. Notice how after they ate the fruit in Gn 3, they do not die for many years to come. Rather, their death is the gravest of all: a spiritual death of separation from God, as seen in their banishment from God’s garden, Eden.
    8. Man’s Vain Religion (Gn 3:7, 9)
    9. 1.     Gn 3:7, “so they sewed fig leaves together and made loincloths for themselves.” This is our first example of man’s vain attempts at religion. The sewing of the fig leaves represents man’s attempt to better himself. To create a false religion based upon his own works to cover his nakedness. The vanity of man’s attempts to cover himself and to hide from God continue throughout Scripture and history in the form of false religions, idol worship (such as the golden calf), and a perception of human nature as primarily positive and good. Man has no need for God when he can sew for himself a loincloth from leaves, however God clothes man in the splendor of His perfect glory.
    10. 2.     Gn 3:9, “Where are you?” Man attempts to hide from an omniscient God. Here, the LORD is not asking where Adam is really hiding. He knows where he is. His question is more one to call Adam and Eve to inspect their current circumstance. The answer to his question would then be: Apart from God.
      1. Proto-Gospel: God’s Plan of Salvation and Promise in Genesis and the Old Testament
      2. The Seed of Eve (Gn 3:15)
      3. 1.     Gn 3:15, “between your seed and her seed. He will strike your head, and you will strike his heel.” Although God punishes them for their disobedience, his plan to reconcile them to Him is already pre-ordained. Basic sexual anatomy tells us that women do not produce seed. They provide the womb for the seed. Man produces the seed, as seen in the Greek word in which sperm is derived, and used in this verse in the Septuagint, σπερμα (Sperm). Seed here also appears singular, in the context. Clearly this is a prophecy that through her line, one will come who will conquer over Satan (who is defeated in Mt 4 and the desert temptations, and ultimately at the cross). However, what of this seed? Women do not produce their own seed, and as such, we are hinted to the virgin birth, where the seed is divinely provided. Within the very curse of women we can trace how God will provide salvation.
      4. 2.     Gal 3:13-18, Review I. D.
      5. Salvation Through Jesus Hinted at the Beginning (Gn 1:1, 26; Jn 1:1-3)
      6. 1.     Gn 1:1, “God” here is Elohim, which is in the plural form. In addition, the Hebrew can be translated as “Through the Son, God created the heavens and the earth.” Also notice 7 Hebrew words, which correlate to the seven days described later.
      7. 2.     Gn 1:26, This plurality is again hinted, where it says “Let Us make man in Our image.” Jesus is then present in Trinitarian form.
      8. 3.     Jn 1:1-3, The OT opens up with this creation statement. John must have read it as ‘Through the Son”, as he opens his Gospel with a similar theological theme. “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. All things were created through Him, and apart from Him not one thing was created that has been created.” Who is this ‘Word’? None other then he who took flesh, Jesus (John 1:14). John’s idea here of everything being created through Jesus, the Word, is similar to the reading of Gn 1:1 as “through the son,” and accompanies the ‘Us’ and ‘Our’ references in Genesis 1.
      9. The Line of Seth; Enoch Walked With God (Gn 5:21-24)
      10. 1.     Gn 5:21-24, “Enoch walked with God… God took him.” All too often we skip genealogies. Here is an example of why we should not. Notice this pattern. Adam, Seth, Enosh, Kenan, Mahalalel, Jared, Methuselah, and Lamech all have account that end with “then he died.” Keep in mind the theme of spiritual death hinted in III. E. However, Enoch stands out. He is described twice with the phrase “walked with God.” At the end we do not find the term “then he died,” but “God took him.” Why did he not experience this death? Because he walked with God, a term of faith in God and his promises. Enoch had faith in God, and by God’s grace, God took him. The taking was of God, the faith was displayed by Enoch. Here, we see Faith is central to salvation, and that the work of salvation is not of man’s ‘fig leaves,’ but God’s taking away.
      11. 2.     Heb 11:5, “By faith Enoch was taken from this life, so that he did not experience death; he could not be found, because God had taken him away. For before he was taken, he was commended as one who pleased God.” Here is affirmed Enoch’s faith as central to his ‘walking with God’ and being taken away. Faith alone through Grace alone. Sola fide.
      12. The Call of Abram (Gn 12:2-3)
      13. 1.     Gn 12:2-3, “I will make you into a great nation … you will be a great blessings … all the peoples on earth will be blessed through you.” God’s plan of salvation is now being clearly defined. Through Eve’s seed, through Abram’s decedents, will the Messiah come. This Messiah, who will come through the Nation of the Israelites (the descendents of Abram mentioned here), will come as a blessing not simply for Abram’s descendents, but for “all the peoples on earth.” God’s plan of salvation is for the whole world.
      14. Abram Believed, God Credited (Gn 15:6, Rm 4)
      15. 1.     Gn 15:6, “Abram believed the LORD, and He credited it to him as righteousness.” Again we are hinted towards this relationship of faith in God’s promises and Word, and God’s grace. Abram is described as righteousness. Why? He broke various commands of God (such as lying about his wife as being his sister in Gn 12:12-13). However, Abram believed. He had faith. By God’s grace then, he is attributed righteousness. Again, we see the central nature of Faith and Grace, not man’s ‘fig leaves.’
      16. 2.     Rm 4, “What then can we say that Abraham … has found? If Abraham was justified by works [fig leaves], then he has something to brag about … For what does the Scripture say? ‘Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him for righteousness’ [Gn 15:6] … Now to the one who works, pay is not considered as a gift, but as something owed. But to the one who does not work, but believes on Him who declares righteous the ungodly, his faith is credited for righteousness … For the promise to Abraham or to his descendants was not through the law, but through the righteousness that comes by faith … It will be credited to us who believe in Him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead.”
      17. The Sacrifice of Isaac: The Lord Provides (Gn 22)
      18. 1.     Gn 22:7, “Then Isaac spoke to his father … “Here I am, my son.” We cannot dismiss an immediate acknowledgment of the Father and Son imagery. This come forward even greater when we recognized it’s within a sacrificial setting. The Father and Son have pre-ordained within the trinity that Jesus, the Son of God, would come as the final sacrifice. The story then isn’t simply about the faithfulness of Abraham. Critics of Christianity are quick to point to Gn 22 and claim that our God is a tyrannical sadistic maniac to call a father to sacrifice his son. But that gravely misses the point! This is not about Abraham and Isaac! It is about God the Father and Jesus the Son! God is not sadistic, because in reality this expresses what God will do for us! For that very critic! He will provide what is most precious in the mind of man (children), as a final sacrifice. He will, as the triune God, take upon man’s sinful burden, and pay a price only God can afford. This hints at the great humility and sacrificial characteristic of the Suffering Servant found in Isaiah 52 & 53, or Psalm 22.
      19. 2.     Gn 22:8, “God Himself will provide the lamb for the burnt offering, my son.” Who is the “the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world,” (Jn 1:29)? None other then Jesus. God will provide the lamb sacrifice. Abraham has faith in this promise. Again we see Christ here, and John the Baptist recognizes this as seen in John 1:29.
      20. 3.     Gn 22:13, “Abraham looked up and saw a ram caught by its horns.” Interesting! In Gn 22:8, Abraham speaks of God providing the lamb. However, God provides a ram. Is this a mistake? No. It hints at the finality that the sacrifice of the Lamb of God, Jesus, will bring. Abraham recognizes this ram and lamb difference.
      21. 4.     Gn 22:14, “And Abraham named that place The LORD Will Provide [Yahweh-yireh], so today it is said: ‘It will be provided on the LORD’s mountain.’ ” Abraham is not looking at the short term, but the long. Interesting enough, from Isaac’s descendents will come the Messiah. Abraham had faith in God’s promise, and that the LORD would provide the sacrificial lamb. Interesting enough, God would provide that lamb on that mountain. Was not Jesus sacrificed on the mountain in the promise land, that very land promised to Abraham’s descendents? A wonder if the location where Abraham sacrificed the lamb is the same location the Lamb would be crucified!
      22. 5.     Gn 22:18, “And all the nations of the earth will be blessed by your offspring because you have obeyed My command.” Again, notice the global perspective. The Lamb will ultimately be a blessing to all the nations. Jesus would come for everyone (Gn 12:2-3).
      23. Judah’s Plea, Joseph’s Tears (Gn 44:33, 45:1-2)
      24. 1.     Gn 44:33, “Now please let your servant remain here as my lord’s slave, in place of the boy.” Notice how Judah offers himself as a saving sacrifice for his brother. He offers to take the punishment and place of Benjamin. This self-sacrificial offer hints towards the Suffering Servant nature of Jesus. The Lamb of God would come to suffer in our place. He would take the full punishment of sin on the cross. Judah’s offer is characteristic of the Savior’s ministry. Also noticeable is that the Messiah would come from Judah’s descendents. Abraham à Isaac à Judah à The Nation of Israel. The plan of salvation continued to be visibly defined and worked.
      25. 2.     Gn 45:1-3, “Joseph could no longer keep his composure … he wept so loudly.” Judah’s sacrificial offer leads Joseph to tears. Oh that we should be brought to tears at a sacrifice immensely and unexplainably greater then Judah’s offer! How the thought of the humiliating cross and the work of Jesus should bring us to weep like Joseph!
      26. Washing With Wine (Gn 49:10-12)
      27. 1.     Gn 49:10, “The scepter will not depart from Judah … until He whose right it is comes and the obedience of the peoples belongs to Him.” From Judah’s descendents will the Messiah come. The scepter references to the kingly nature of the Messiah, who is Lord of all. It is Jesus whose right it is to rule. The plan of salvation is now seen in the descendents of Judah, and in one person, the messiah, in whom all obedience belongs (here is visible the need of obedience to perhaps correct the disobedience initiated in the garden).
      28. 2.     Gn 49:11, “He ties his donkey to a vine.” This explains the character of this King from Judah. His perfection is hinted. Who else could tie a donkey to a fickle vine and rest assured it will stay put? Only one with dominion over even the animal kingdom. Someone of a Godly persuasion.
      29. 3.     Gn 49:11, “He washes his clothes in wine, and his robes in the blood of grapes.” Who in the world, in an attempt to clean their clothes, uses wine? Wine does not remove a stain, but adds to it. This verse must then point to another characteristic of the Kingly Messiah. It will be by Jesus’ blood that we will wear clean robes (Rev 7:9). The wine that washes here thus points prophetically to the Suffering Servant nature of the Messiah as identified earlier.
      30. 4.     Rev 7:9, “After this I looked and there before me was a great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, tribe, people and language [‘all the nations will be blessed’, Gn 22:18], standing before the throne [‘scepter’ Gn 49:10] and in front of the Lamb [Gn 22:8]. They were wearing white robes and were holding palm branches in their hands.” It is by the blood of Jesus, through the cross, that our white robes are clean of their sin.
      31. 5.     Gn 49:12, “His eyes are darker than wine, and his teeth are whiter than milk.” One can only imagine the wide array of diseases available to rob the eyes of its color. One can also only imagine the condition of one’s teeth in an age before toothbrush and toothpaste. This verse then describes the Kingly Messiah of 49:10 in a fashion similar to the donkey and vine portrayal: the darkness of eyes and whiteness of teeth express the perfect character of this kingly messiah. Who else could be perfect but God alone? The scepter, the donkey and wine, the washing with wine/blood, and the whiteness of teeth all provide an image of a King of Kings with power over all creation and personal perfection, who will wash us of our sins through His blood. Who does this sound like? None other then the Jesus of the New Testament.
      32. The Suffering Servant in the Psalter (Ps 22)
      33. 1.     Ps 22:1, “My God, my God, why have You forsaken me?” In a time when the Hebrew Bible had neither verse numbers nor chapters, one would refer to sections and books by the first sentence. Is it then no wonder that Jesus’ last words on the cross would quote this exact verse (Mt 27:46, Mk 15:34)? What then is Jesus telling us? Overtly, he desires we turn to this text. What exactly do we find? A detailed depiction of the Suffering Servant, in whom Jesus fulfills. We read the rest of the Psalm and are shocked by it’s detailing of Jesus’ ministry.
      34. 2.     Ps 22:7-8, “Everyone who sees me mocks me … ‘let the LORD deliver him.”  Oddly similar to the taunts of those who mocked Jesus on the cross, calling on Him to have God deliver him from the cross.
      35. 3.     Ps 22:16, “they pierced my hands and my feet.” The crucifixion clearly detailed.
      36. 4.     Ps 22:17, “I can count all my bones.” Jesus’ knees and/or shins would remain unbroken, going against the normal practice of breaking the shins or kneecaps to speed up the death of the one crucified.
      37. 5.     Ps 22:18, “They divided my garments among themselves, and they cast lots for my clothing.” Again, oddly similar to the practice of the Roman guards who cast lots and took Jesus’ clothing. Again, the cross is here prophetically seen.
      38. 6.     Ps 22:22-31, Ps 23, Notice how all this is followed with profound rejoicing. Over what? Nothing else but the victory of the cross. Heb 2:12 quotes the words of David in verse 22 regarding the risen Lord. Ps 23 also speaks of the LORD as shepherd, and the result of laying down in “green pastures” and “still waters” (Ps 23:2). An imagine of heaven is here hinted.
      39. The Virgin Will Conceive (Is 7:14, Mt 1)
      40. 1.     Is 7:14, “Therefore, the Lord Himself will give you [all] a sign: The virgin will conceive, have a son, and name him Immanuel.” Prophetic describes only add to identifying God’s plan of salvation. A sign of such a plan is seen in a virgin birth, as well as the name Immanuel. Christ fulfills these both. A unique event is given in which to distinguish this Messiah.
      41. 2.     Mt 1:18-23, “she was pregnant by the Holy Spirit … all this took place to fulfill what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet: ‘See, the virgin will become pregnant and give birth to a son, and they will name Him Immanuel,’ which is translated ‘God is with us.’”
      42. A Child Born, Yet Called ‘Mighty God’ and ‘Eternal Father’? (Is 9:6, 7)
      43. 1.     Is 9:6, “a child will be born for us … the government will be on His shoulders. He will be named Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.” For a child to be called Wonderful Counselor or Prince of Peace is understandable. But how can any son born of a woman be called Mighty God and Eternal Father?! For the strict monotheistic Jew, does this not reek of blasphemy? It would be an insult to call any human child as Mighty God. Who then can be born of a woman, yet also be called Mighty God? So we find further characteristics of the Messiah, which now hints at the incarnated nature of Jesus.
      44. 2.     Is 9:7, “The dominion will be vast … from now on and forever. The zeal of the LORD of Hosts will accomplish this.” The work of this figure called Mighty God is eternal, all-powerful, and complete. Also note that God, through his grace, will “accomplish this.”
      45. The Suffering Servant in Isaiah (Is 52, 53)
      46. 1.     Is 52:13, “He will be raised and lifted up and greatly exalted.” Isaiah’s narrative describing the Suffering Servant begins with the essence of the Savior’s victory over sin: being raised in the Resurrection. The Book of Isaiah is known as the ‘Fifth Gospel’ with good reason. Chapters 52 and 53 read as if they better belong in the crucifixion accounts of the NT Gospels. Providing the following examples further help us identify the character, method, and purpose of this Messiah, and thus God’s plan of Salvation. Here we clearly see Jesus and the Cross.
      47. 2.     Is 53:4, “Yet he Himself bore our sicknesses, and He carried our pains.” As Judah pleaded to take Benjamin’s place, Jesus accomplishes it in place for all humanity. He bore our sicknesses, and carried our pains, nailing them once and for all to the Cross.
      48. 3.     Is 53:5, “He was pierced because of our transgressions, crushed because of our iniquities; punishment for our peace was on Him.” Again, we cannot ignore its similarity with Ps 22, which is fresh on our minds. “They pierced my hands and my feet,” Ps 22:16 states. Is 53:5 then explains why we are “pierced”: for “our transgressions.”
      49. 4.     Is 53:7, “He was oppressed and afflicted, yet He did not open His mouth.” See Jesus’ responding with silence to the accusations by the Sanhedrin in Mt 27:12-14.
      50. 5.     Is 53:7, “Like lamb led to the slaughter.” Again, we cannot ignore images of the sacrificial lamb still fresh on our minds. We are reminded of IV. F. and the lamb to be provided as promised by God during the account of Abraham and Isaac’s sacrifice on the mountain. Also are we reminded of Jn 1:29 and Rev 7:9.
      51. 6.     Is 53:8, “He was struck because of My people’s rebellion.” That rebellion that started against God in the garden (III. D.).
      52. 7.     Is 53:9, “They made His grave with the wicked, and with a rich man at His death.” Jesus was crucified alongside criminals, and although he would have normally been buried in an open grave with them, instead he buried in the tomb of a rich man (Joseph of Arimathea, Mt 27:57-60). Amazing the details prophesized 700+ years prior to the event.
      53. 8.     Is 53:10a, “You make Him a restitution offering.”
      54. 9.     Is 53:11, “My righteous servant will justify many, and He will carry their iniquities.”
      55. 10.     Is 53:12, “He submitted Himself to death … He bore the sin of many and interceded for the rebels.”
      56. 11.     Is 53:10, “He will see [His] seed, He will prolong His days.” We are reminded of the workings of God’s plan of salvation and the role of the woman’s ‘seed’ as mentioned earlier in Gn 3:15. Surely God does prolong his days, as seen in the resurrection, and the resulting offer of free life.

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