PDF copy of Debate Outline without WordPress format/outline errors: THE6110 Women Leadership Debate Outline
LINK to the Opposition’s Argument: http://www.theologyforthechurch.com/1/post/2011/12/can-women-be-senior-pastors.html
NOTE: I do not subscribe to the Egalitarian position. I am a compatabilist who believes in the equality of persons yet distinctions of roles. I was assigned this debate position for my Theology III course.
FAL2011: THE6130 DEBATE OUTLINE
DEBATE: A CONSECRATED FEMALE CHRISTIAN IS ELIGIBLE TO BE CONSIDERED FOR ALL AVENUES OF MINISTRY, INCLUDING PREACHING, TEACHING, AND THE ROLE OF SENIOR PASTOR.
Leonard O Goenaga
- EXTORDIUM: INTRODUCTION
1. A consecrated female Christian is eligible to be considered for all avenues of ministry, including preaching, teaching, and the role of senior pastor.
- NARRATIO: BACKGROUND INFORMATION/PROPOSITION
i. As is the evidence of the whole counsel of God, women are recognized and empowered for leadership. An egalitarian understanding of women leaders provides (1) better explanatory power on redemptive-canonical grounds, (2) better explanatory power on grammatical-historical grounds, and (3) greater empowerment on missional grounds.
- PROBATIO 1: BETTER EXPLANATORY POWER: ON REDEMPTIVE-CANONICAL GROUNDS
- P1: Men and Women Shared Equality in the Garden
1. Men and Women were created to share jointly the responsibilities of children and dominion.
- The Bible teaches that woman and man were created for full and equal partnership. The word “helper” (ezer) used to designate woman in Genesis 2:18 refers to God in most instances of Old Testament usage (e.g. I Sam 7:12; Ps 121:1-2).
2. The Bible teaches that the forming of woman from man demonstrates the fundamental unity and equality of human beings (Gen 2:21-23).
- In Genesis 2:18, 20 the word “suitable” (kenegdo) denotes equality and adequacy.
3. The Bible teaches that man and woman were co-participants in the Fall:
- Adam was no less culpable than Eve (Gen 3:6; Rom 5:12-21; I Cor 15:21-22).
- P2: Upon Sin’s Contamination, Subjugation Enters
1. The Bible teaches that the rulership of Adam over Eve resulted from the Fall and was therefore not a part of the original created order.
- Genesis 3:16 is a prediction of the effects of the Fall rather than a prescription of God’s ideal order.
- P3: Women Held Prominent Positions as Teachers, Leaders, and Prophets in the OT
1. Leadership of Miriam (Ex. 15:20-21) is viewed as a special gift to Israel (Mic 6:4)
2. Deborah served as judge, general, and prophetess (Jg 4-5)
3. Hulda the Prophetess declared an old scroll to be indeed the Word of God and called the nation to a repentance that resulted in a great revival (2 Kings 22:8-20; 2 Chron 34:14-28)
4. “Wise women” played a considerable role in the moral and political life of Israel (2 Sm 14:1-20; 20:14-22; Pro 14:1).
5. Female cult officials served in both the tabernacle and temple (Ex 38:8; 1 Ch 25:5-6; Ez 2:65; Neh 7:67; 10:39; Ps 68:24-25; Lk 2:36-37).
6. Female Prophets functioned throughout the history of Israel (Ex 15:20; Neh 6:14; Isa 8:3; Ezek 13:17-23; Lk 2:36-37).
7. Courage of Esther caused may to convert to the Jewish faith in the postexilic period (Eth 8:17).
- P4: The Inter-testamental Period Encouraged A Negative View of Women
1. Rabbis encouraged not to teach or even speak to them.
- “From garments cometh a moth and from a woman the iniquities of a man. For better the iniquity of a man than a woman doing a good turn.” (Sir. 42:13-14).
- P5: Jesus Reversed This Attitude in Teaching and Behavior
1. Spoke to women (Jn 4)
2. Taught women (Martha & Mary Lk 10:38-42)
3. Admitted women as followers & disciples (Lk 8:2-3)
4. After the resurrection our Lord first appeared to women and made them the bearers of the good news even to the apostles (Mt 28:8-10; cf. Jn 20:14-16).
5. “Thus, women are attested as the primary witnesses of the birth, crucifixion, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.”
- P6: Women Held Prominent Positions of Leadership in the Early Church
1. Sign and seal of the covenant of grace, baptism, now administered to women and men (Ac 8:12; 16:15).
2. Women may perform the ministry of prophecy (Ac 2:18; 21:9; 1 Cor. 11:5).
3. Paul surrounded by woman coworkers
- 10 out of 29 persons mentioned in Romans 16 are women.
- A number of these women presented in same terms as male collaborators: Timothy, Apollos, Epaphras, Titus.
- Verb for “worked very hard” (16:6, 12) used for ministerial service.
- Phoebe is called a deacon and one who presides.
4. Women are priests without distinction.
- Christians of both sexes are “living stones . . . built into a spiritual house to be a holy priesthood.” (1 Pt 2)
- In Revelations, Christians in general are presented as “a kingdom and priests” (Rv. 1:6; 5:10).
5. Priscilla enjoyed an outstanding ministry along with her husband, Aquila, whose name usually stands second (Act 18:1-4, 18-28; Rm 16:3-4; 1 Co 16:19; 2 Tim 4:19)
- C: Thus, We find that Scripture affirms a positive view of the role of women in ministry. Women are affirmed throughout the canon as leaders and prophetic teachers. The question is reallt about whether women can hold authoritative offices in the local church (such as Senior Pastor). It is to the roles we now turn.
- PROBATIO 2: BETTER EXPLANATORY POWER: ON GRAMMATICAL-HISTORICAL GROUNDS
- P2: NT Women Leaders
1. More women named as leaders than men
- Phoebe as “deacon” (Rm 16:1-2), and Mary (Ac 12:12), Lydia (16:15), Chloe (1 Cor. 1:11), and Nympha (Col. 4:15) as overseers of house churches.
2. Location: The more Romanized the area, the more visible the leadership of women.
- P1: Women Served as Patrons of House Churches
1. Churches are identified as meeting in the homes of women, who apparently gave them leadership (Act 12:2; 16:40; Rm 16:4-5; 1 Cor 1:11; 16:19; Col 4:15; 2 Jn)
- John wrote his second letter to the elder, the elect or chosen lady, and to her children, whom he loves in truth. Kuria, the word translated “lady,” is the feminine form of “Lord or Master.” Clement of Alexandria agreed[xvii] that John called her the woman “chosen to be in charge.”
- Romans 16 mentions Phoebe as, “A deacon of the church at Cenchreae.” Her name means bright or radiant. Paul expressly includes himself among those to whom Phoebe ministered, calling her an overseer (prostatis). She was more than just a regular church member. No other person is called a prostatis in the NT, but later Apostolic fathers used this word in the masculine form (Prostates) to designate the bishop presiding over the Eucharist.
- P2: Women Served as Prophets
1. Recognized leadership role.
2. Luke recognizes leadership of the church in Antioch as “prophets and teachers” (Ac 13:1-3)
3. Prophets role consisted of public conviction of sin (1 Cor. 14:24), instruction (1 Cor 14:19, katecheo), exhortation (1 Cor 14:31), and guidance (Ac 13:3-4; 16:6).
- katecheo and didasko are virtually synonyms in the NT.
- Paul speaks of being taught (katechoumenos) by the law (Rm 2:18)
- Luke uses katecheo and didasko interchangeably in Acts 18:25.
4. It was to “God’s holy apostles and prophets” that “the mystery of Christ has now been revealed by the Spirit” (Eph 3:5)
5. Thus why Paul calls their utterances “revelation” (1 Cor 14:29-30)
6. Paul treats the prophetic activity of women as identical to the prophetic activity of men (1 Cor. 11:4-5)
- P3: Women Served as Teachers
1. Priscilla instructed Apollos in the “way of the Lord” (Ac 18:24-26)
- Word exethento (expounded) is used, not edidaxe (taught), but that is the same word used when Paul preaches to the Jews in Rome (“he expounded” [exetitheto], Ac 28:23)
2. Female prophets at Corinth instructed the congregation (cf. 1 Co 11:5, 14:19)
3. Gift of teaching comes after apostleship and prophecy in one spiritual gift list (1 Co 12:28).
- Teaching is linked with the gift of pastoring in another (“pastor-teacher” Eph 4:11)
- Part of the job description of a prophet (“to instruct” [katecheo] 1 Co 14:19)
4. Everyone in the congregation was expected to teach (Col. 3:16; Hb 5:12)
- P4: Women Served as Deacons
1. Chrysostom mentions Phoebe along with Prisca, “These were noble women, hindered in no way by their sex…and this is as might be expected for in Christ Jesus there is neither male nor female.”
- “This text teaches with the authority of the Apostle that even women are instituted deacons in the Church. This is the function that was exercised in the church of Cenchreae by Phoebe, who was the object of high praise and recommendation by Paul…And thus this text teaches at the same time two things: that there are, as we have already said, women deacons in the church, and that women, who by their good works deserve to be praised by the apostle, ought to be accepted in the diaconate.”
- P5: Women Served as Colleagues
1. Euodia and Syntyche are mentioned as colleagues of the apostle Paul (Php 4:2-3),
- P6: Women Served as … Apostles?
1. Some early fathers understood Junia (Rm 16:7) to be a female apostle, although modern translators give the masculine name “Junias”, a name unattested in the ancient world
- Chrysostom wrote about Junia saying, “Indeed, to be an apostle at all is a great thing; but to be even amongst those of note; just consider what a great encomium that is…Oh, how great is the devotion of this woman, that she should even be counted worthy for the appellation (classification or delegation) of apostles.”
- Despite his bias against women, even Jerome concurred that Junia was a female apostle (Liber Interpretationis Hebraicorum Nominum 72,15). The identity of Junia as a woman apostle was not questioned until the Middle Ages when translators tried to change the gender of the name to the masculine “Junias.” The name Junia was a very common woman’s name, but the name Junias was unknown in antiquity (and girls weren’t named boy names and vise-versa, like today).
- P7: Women Served in Early Church History
- P8: Leadership is Not the Same As Authority
- Congregationalism + Priesthood of All Believers + Whole Counsel of God
- Leadership vs. Authority
- Lack of use word authority (exousia) attached with local church leaders.
- It is the church that Jesus gives the “keys of the kingdom” (Mt 16:19), and authority to “bind” and “loose” (Mt 18:18).
- The church tests prophetic utterances, chooses missionaries and church delegates, disciplines, etc.
- Individuals appointed to represent the church’s interest are empowered to equipt congregation. “Christ gave some to be apostles, some to be prophets, some to be evangelists, and some to be pastor-teachers, to prepare God’s people for the work of the ministry” (Eph 4:11-12)
- C: Thus, it is clear throughout the Canon that women served as leaders. The question isn’t whether women can ‘lead’. The clear testimony of the Inerrant word of God is a resounding “Yes!” When taken in its canonical and historical contexts. Why then, have we arrived at such a position that hands so much theological weight on single incidents of prooftexts?
- PROBATIO 3: GREATER MISSIONAL POWER: ON GREAT COMMISSION RESURGENCE GROUNDS
- P1: Women Served the Great Commission in Early Church History
- Wrote that there were four orders of female church officers, all of whom are mentioned in the Bible: female deacons, virgins, widows, and elderesses.
- Some of these women were considered clerics, given ecclesial authority, and seated with the other clergy (Testament of the Lord 1.23)
- Pliny reports two ministrae, or deaconesses, as leaders of a Christian community (Epistles 10.96, 8).
- Historical records from 112 AD, show that Roman governor Pliny the Younger detailed his effort to interrogate the Bithynian leaders who were two slave women called “ministrae.” Pliny states that these two ministrae, or deaconesses, were the leaders of that Christian community (Epistles 10.96,8).
3. Apostolic Constitutions VIII. 19-20
- Ordination service of deaconesses still preserved in the Apostolic Constitutions (VIII.19-20).
4. Early Catacombs
- Earily catacomb paintings show women in the authoritative stance of a bishop, conferring blessing on Christians of both sexes.
5. Early Frescoes
- Two frescoes appear to show women serving communion.
- P2: Women Are Denied Service; An Inclusio is Evident (The Constantinian Boogeyman)
1. Hellenistic Misogyny
2. Beginning about 350 the following prohibitions were issues against women’s activities:
- Council of Laodicea – Serving as priests or presiding over churches, establishing presbyteresses, or presidents in the churches, approaching the altar
- Fourth Synod of Carthage – Teaching men or baptizing
- First Council of Orange and the councils of Nimes, Epaons, and Orleans – Ordination of deaconesses.
3. Patter: Scripture’s Witness (OT), Inter-testamental Rabbinical Religion, Scripture’s Witness (NT), Post-Testamental Church/State Religion.
- P3: A True Great Commission Resurgence
1. Returning to the Purity of the Scriptures.
- P4: Example – Phoebe Palmer, Evangelist
1. Associate of D. L. Moody, who himself advocated for biblical concept of equality.
2. Phoebe is herself credited with the conversion of 25,000 souls.
3. Declared the church to be a sort of potter’s field in which the talents of women are buried.
- C: Therefore
- REFUTATIO 1 – THEOLOGICAL
- Arguments include a theology that centers around universal and eschatological proclamations of Galatians 3:28 that in Christ “there is neither male nor female,”
- Prophet Joel who declared “in the last days your sons and daughters will prophesy” (Joel 2:28)
- A1: Jesus was Male.
1. “Women cannot be ordained because they are female and hence do not fully represent the male humanity of Christ.”
2. “As Christ is the bridegroom of the church, those representing him must also be male.” (Orthodox, Reformed, high liturgical churches).
3. CA: Christs disciples were also Jewish, as were his 12, but that doesn’t prevent us.
- A2: Natural Law Arguments
1. Natural law cast doubt on the ‘rightness’ and natural aptitude of women to lead and preach.
- A3: Arguments from Tradition
1. Reformation. Justification by Grace Alone through Faith Alone
- A4: Arguments for Subordination
1. Women are intended to have a role and place under men.
2. “To the extend that we have inherited Greek gender ideals as part of our civilization, these notions of subordination run very deep.”
3. Supported by 1 Cor 11.
4. Order of creation does not witnessed to inferiority
- CA: Adam was created after the animals.
- CA: “helpmate” used most often of God helping people and thus does not connote subordination.
5. CA: 1 Cor 11
- Much clear passages teach equality.
- Bared heads of women associated with fertility cults.
- Word “head” better interpreted as “source,” rather than leader.
- A5: Arguments from Silence
1. 1 Timothy 2:12-14
- The Kroegers, in I Suffer Not a Woman, argue that the rare Greek word translated “authority” (authentein) in 1 Tm may be better rendered “usurping authority,”
- And the word “silence” here connotes peace and harmony (hesuchia).
- The references to Adam’s priority and Eve’s duplicity make snese as a refutation of the pervasive Gnostic belief in Eve as a fertility goddess, the source of all life, who cleverly outwitted the Creator and Adam.”
2. 1 Cor 14:34-35
- Culturally embedded and at odds with Paul’s own practices and Galatians 3
- The greek word “speak” (laleo) in Corinthians is easily rendered “babble,” and the word “silence” (sigao) bears connotations of desisting from chatter.
- A6: Women are Easily Deceived than Men
1. Gn 3
2. 1 Tm 2
- These latter verses are most readily understood as directed against the Gnostic belief discussed above.
3. Do we allow easily deceived women to teach children?
- REFUTATIO 2 – SCRIPTURAL
- P1: 1 Corinthians 7
1. “wife has authority over her”
- 2But since there is so much immorality, each man should have his own wife, and each woman her own husband. 3The husband should fulfill his marital duty to his wife, and likewise the wife to her husband. 4The wife’s body does not belong to her alone but also to her husband. In the same way, the husband’s body does not belong to him alone but also to his wife. 5Do not deprive each other except by mutual consent and for a time, so that you may devote yourselves to prayer.
2. Mutuality in Marriage
- What needs to be carefully observed is complete mutuality in the marital relationship emphasized here. Stunning when considered against the Greek background of Corinthians (1 Cor. 7:2-5, 10-11, 15-16)
- 1 Cor. 7:2-5, Note: The wife has authority over her husband’s body.
- P2: 1 Corinthians 11:2-16
1. “And the head of woman is man”
- 3Now I want you to realize that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman is man, and the head of Christ is God. 4Every man who prays or prophesies with his head covered dishonors his head. 5And every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head—it is just as though her head were shaved. 6If a woman does not cover her head, she should have her hair cut off; and if it is a disgrace for a woman to have her hair cut or shaved off, she should cover her head. 7A man ought not to cover his head,b since he is the image and glory of God; but the woman is the glory of man. 8For man did not come from woman, but woman from man; 9neither was man created for woman, but woman for man. 10For this reason, and because of the angels, the woman ought to have a sign of authority on her head.
- 11In the Lord, however, woman is not independent of man, nor is man independent of woman. 12For as woman came from man, so also man is born of woman. But everything comes from God. 13Judge for yourselves: Is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head uncovered? 14Does not the very nature of things teach you that if a man has long hair, it is a disgrace to him, 15but that if a woman has long hair, it is her glory? For long hair is given to her as a covering. 16If anyone wants to be contentious about this, we have no other practice—nor do the churches of God.
2. Note special emphasis of Paul to balance his statements (11:11-12) lest women’s rights might be considered abridged by what he said.
3. Note that women may pray and prophesy in public (11:5, 13).
4. Headcoverings argument made on grounds of creation order. (CR 1 Timothy 2)
- Paul uses Eve analogy in an adhoc manner. Eve was created for Adam’s sake; therefore women should wear head coverings.
- However, after this argument, Paul reminds us that, in the end, neither men nor women are independent of the other (1 Cor 11:7-12).
- Holy Kiss repeated as often as head coverings (Rm 16:16; 1 Cor 16:20; 2 Cor 13:12; 1 Thess. 5:26; 1 Peter 5:14)
- P3: 1 Corinthians 14:33-36
1. “Women should remain silent in the churches. They are not allowed to speak, but must be in submission, as the Law says.”
- 33For God is not a God of disorder but of peace.
- As in all the congregations of the saints, 34women should remain silent in the churches. They are not allowed to speak, but must be in submission, as the Law says. 35If they want to inquire about something, they should ask their own husbands at home; for it is disgraceful for a woman to speak in the church.
- 36Did the word of God originate with you? Or are you the only people it has reached? 37If anybody thinks he is a prophet or spiritually gifted, let him acknowledge that what I am writing to you is the Lord’s command. 38If he ignores this, he himself will be ignored.i
- 39Therefore, my brothers, be eager to prophesy, and do not forbid speaking in tongues. 40But everything should be done in a fitting and orderly way.
2. The problem seems not to be teaching, but rather that the women are learning—too loudly!
- Throughout 1st century Mediterranean world, novices were exected to learn quietly, but more advanced students were expected to interrupt all kinds of public lectures with questions.
- Plutarch, On Listening to Lectures; Aulus Gellius 18.13.7-8; 10.10.1-6; Tosefta Sanhedrin 7:10
- Directly contradicts 11:5, 13.
- Taken strictly, it would also prevent women from sharing in congregational singing.
- Thus, we must interpret this differently.
4. One could perceive that what Paul is forbidding is a kind of disruptive babbling and questioning that would interfere with a worshipful attitude in the church.
- Questions must be asked at home, not during the service.
- Reason why women are mentioned rather than men may be due to the fact that women were the majority in Corinthian.
- Unless Paul changes the subject from women’s general silence in church (1 Cor 14:34) to them asking questions to learn (14:35a) and then back to women’s general silence in church (14:35b), Paul is addressing their asking questions in an effort to learn.
5. “When you gather . . . each has a psalm, a teaching, a revelation, a tongue, or an interpretation” (14:26a)
- P4: Ephesians 5:22-33
1. “wives, submit to your own husbands, as to the Lord” (5:23)
- 22Wives, submit to your husbands as to the Lord. 23For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body, of which he is the Savior. 24Now as the church submits to Christ, so also wives should submit to their husbands in everything.
- 25Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her 26to make her holy, cleansingb her by the washing with water through the word, 27and to present her to himself as a radiant church, without stain or wrinkle or any other blemish, but holy and blameless. 28In this same way, husbands ought to love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. 29After all, no one ever hated his own body, but he feeds and cares for it, just as Christ does the church— 30for we are members of his body. 31“For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and the two will become one flesh.”c 32This is a profound mystery—but I am talking about Christ and the church. 33However, each one of you also must love his wife as he loves himself, and the wife must respect her husband.
2. It is preceded by a commandment for general submission (5:21).
3. The context is the home and carries no implication of roles in society, in the church, or other relationships not affecting the home.
- Submission of children/parents, and masters/slaves underscores the context of the home, and does not bear an implication for church offices or society.
- It is not a violation of God’s order when a son has a higher army rank than his father
- or a higher place in a corporation
- or a pastoral office in a church in which the parents are members.
- P5: 1 Peter 3:1-7
1. “1Likewise, wives, be subject to your own husbands, so that even if some do not obey the word, they may be won without a word by the conduct of their wives, 2when they see your respectful and pure conduct.”
- 1Wives, in the same way be submissive to your husbands so that, if any of them do not believe the word, they may be won over without words by the behavior of their wives, 2when they see the purity and reverence of your lives. 3Your beauty should not come from outward adornment, such as braided hair and the wearing of gold jewelry and fine clothes. 4Instead, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 5For this is the way the holy women of the past who put their hope in God used to make themselves beautiful. They were submissive to their own husbands, 6like Sarah, who obeyed Abraham and called him her master. You are her daughters if you do what is right and do not give way to fear.
- 7Husbands, in the same way be considerate as you live with your wives, and treat them with respect as the weaker partner and as heirs with you of the gracious gift of life, so that nothing will hinder your prayers.
2. Same spirit as Ephesians 5.
3. Enjoins submission for wives to husbands, but ennobles their function in the home.
- P6: 1 Timothy 2:9-15
1. “I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man; she must be silent”
- 9I also want women to dress modestly, with decency and propriety, not with braided hair or gold or pearls or expensive clothes, 10but with good deeds, appropriate for women who profess to worship God.
- 11A woman should learn in quietness and full submission. 12I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man; she must be silent. 13For Adam was formed first, then Eve. 14And Adam was not the one deceived; it was the woman who was deceived and became a sinner. 15But womena will be savedb through childbearing—if they continue in faith, love and holiness with propriety.
2. Does is Bar Teaching?
- (1) Paul could not forbid mothers to teach their children, since this is enjoined in Pro 1:8; 6:20; 31:26; and Dt. 6:7.
- Also against commendation given to Lois and Eunice (2 Tm 1:5) who guided Timothy toward the faith.
- (2) It appears Paul does not refer to teaching profession per se, since probably a majority of all teachers have been women and have often been blessed in this function. In Paul’s day teachers were slaves, thus did not involve taking undue authority.
3. Further Difficulties?
- In 1 Tm 2:8, it seems that “the men should pray”, however this activity surely should be open to women both at home and in the church (1 Cor. 11:5)
- The creation account could stress order of fall rather than special type of failure.
- Complications also arrive with the plural verb “women will be saved”. We know that Paul is not talking about women being saved by childbearing, because faith saved. Dealing with Genesis, perhaps he is referencing Eve (3:15) and Mary (3:15)’s role in redemptive history.
4. Is this a universal rule?
- Has its exceptions: Husband-wife team teaching a ministerial student (Acts 18:26)
- Spirit-directed utterance, like prophecy (1 Cor 11:4-5), from which people could also learn (1 Cor 14:31)
- Possible that the text is the exceptional one, which can be argued if it can be shown to address a particular situation.
5. If there are exceptions, are there situational elements?
- (1) Are there exceptions? As noted above, there are exceptions, in contrast to genuinely universal biblical rules like those prohibiting homosexual behavior.
- (2) Are there situational elements? The one passage in the bible that specifically prohibits women from teaching is addressed to the one church where we know that false teachers were effectively targeting women.
- False teachers targeted women in their households (2 Tim. 3:6)
- These women were incapable of learning correctly (2 Tim. 3:7; cf. 1 Tim 4:7)
- Some women would go from house to house spreading “nonsense” (1 Tim. 5:13)
- Gordon Fee’s survey of every use in extant Greek literature of word translated “busybodies” in 1 Tm 5:13 reveals word was used for those speaking nonsense, and in moral and philosophical contexts it typically refers to those spreading false or improper teaching.
6. If we accept it as transcultural, what about the precedent?
- To Timothy: Most do not prohibit the drinking of only water for those with stomach ailments and compel them to use wine as well (5:23).
- Similarly, if we are to obey 2 Timothy, each of us should come to Paul quickly, making sure we pick up his cloak and books from Troas before coming to him (2 Tim 4:9-13)
- That Paul also calls Titus to come to him in Titus 3:12 surely attests this as a transcultural requirement.
- To the Church as a Whole: Widows must not be put on the list for church support unless they are at least 60 years old (1 Tm 5:9), and have brought up children and washed saints feet (5:10). , so few widows fulfill these requirements.
7. Argument by Analogy?
- CR: Eve & Women Headscarves (1 Cor 11:8-9)
- CR: Eve’s Deception & Corinthian Christians (2 Cor. 11:3)
- 3But I am afraid that, as the serpent deceived Eve by his craftiness, your minds will be led astray from the simplicity and purity of devotion to Christ.
- Basis of comparison is that both were easily deceived.
- Paul could apply the image to anyone who was easily deceived.
8. Referencing to the Old Testament?
- Paul drew an analogy with Eve and all the Corinthin Chrisytians (male and female, 2 Cor 11:3)
- Paul uses analogy in his arguments. Some are closer to the text than others.
9. 23Stop drinking only water, and use a little wine because of your stomach and your frequent illnesses. (1 Tm 2:9-15)
- P7: 1 Tm 3:11
1. “Women [deacons], likewise, are to be worthy of respect, not slanderers, temperate, and trustworthy in everything.” (1 Tm 3:11)
2. “[Male] deacons likewise must be worthy of respect, not double-tongued, not given to much wine . . . Women likewise must be worthy of respect, not slanderers, temperate” (8, 11)
3. Greek word order of verses 8 and 11 is identical.
4. These credentials are the exact duplicates of those listed for male deacons in 1 Timothy 3:8-10.
5. Post-Apostolic Writers understood Pail to be speaking of women deacons.
- Clement of Alexandria (2/3rd century)
- “For we know what the honorable Paul in one of his letters to Timothy prescribed regarding women deacons” (Stromata 3.6.53)
- John Chrysostom (4th century)
- Talks of women who held the rank of deacon in the apostolic church (Homilies on Timothy 11 [ on 1 Tm 3:11])
- P8: Transcultural Principles
1. Slaveholders (Eph 6:5)
2. CR: 1 Corinthians 11
- P9: 2 Timothy 3:16-17
1. When we read in 2 Timothy 3:16-17 that all Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for ‘teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness,’ we might have expected that after these descriptions of ministry Paul would use a term for ‘the man of God’ that emphasizes distinctive maleness, but, in fact, the language he uses is that of generic humanity and applies to women as well as men.
- Strongs: a man, one of the human race. Generic term for “mankind”. People, including women and men (Mt 4:19, 12:12).
- Relates to both genders.
- Used instead of ἄνδρες
2. We have to remember this when understanding 1 Timothy 2:9-15.
- VIII. PERORATIO
- Restated Thesis
1. Better Explanatory Power: On Redemptive-Canonical Grounds
2. Better Explanatory Power: On Grammatical-Historical Grounds
3. Greater Missional Power: On Great Commission Resurgence Grounds
- 2 Timothy 3:16-17, anthropos
- Mt 28:8-10, After the resurrection our Lord first appeared to women and made them the bearers of the good news even to the apostles (Mt 28:8-10; cf. Jn 20:14-16).
- Closing Illustration
1. Missionary Cards Illustration
2. “If you want a great commission resurgence, here it is…”